Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease caused by germs that are spread between people through the air. TB usually affects the lungs but may also affect other parts of the body, including the brain, kidneys or spine. It can be deadly if left untreated.
How does TB spread?
- TB germs get into the air when a person who is sick from
TB disease in the lungs coughs, sneezes, speaks or sings.
- Germs can stay in the air for several hours, depending on
- A new person gets infected by breathing in the germs from
- TB infection is not spread by sharing food and drink, shaking
someone’s hand, touching bed linens or toilet seats.
How do you know if you are infected with TB?
- Breathing in the TB germs does not usually make people
sick right away.
- The germs can stay hidden in the body for many years
after a person gets infected.
- Most often people have no idea when they get infected and
only find out after getting sick or if someone thinks to do
Who is most at risk of getting TB?
- People at the highest risk of getting infected include people who:
Spend the most time with someone who is sick with
- Have lived or traveled to countries that have a high rate of TB.
- Have weakened immune systems, especially those with
- Such as, family members, friends, and coworkers of a
person with active TB.
What are the symptoms of TB disease?
The most common symptoms of active TB disease are:
A cough lasting more than three weeks
- Unintended weight loss
- Coughing up blood
- Pain in the chest
- Heavy sweating at night
- Loss of appetite
- Weakness or fatigue
Some people with early TB disease don’t have any symptoms when they get diagnosed. If TB disease is outsideof the lungs, then the symptoms will depend on the body part involved.
How is TB infection diagnosed and treated?
- People who are at risk for having TB but who are not sick
can be tested with a simple skin test or a blood test.
- If a skin test or blood test shows that someone has
been infected with TB, other tests, like a chest x‐ray, are
needed to make sure the person doesn’t have active TB
even if they don’t feel sick.
- A person with an inactive TB infection can take medication
to prevent them from developing TB disease in the future.
How is active TB disease treated?
Active TB disease can almost always be treated and cured
- Treatment typically lasts six to 12 months. It is very
important that all medicine is taken exactly as prescribed.
- Treatment requires a combination of medications to kill all
the germs and to make sure they don’t become resistant
to the medications during the course of treatment.
- TB disease that is resistant to the usual drugs is much
harder and more expensive to treat and takes longer.
How does having TB disease affect a person’s
- People who are sick with TB in the lungs have to stay
isolated from others for several weeks. They can not go to
work, school or even grocery shopping.
- Isolation can usually happen at home since family
members have already been exposed and will be tested,
and treated if necessary, for TB by the health department.
- After a few weeks on medications, a person can usually
return to their normal routine.
What should you do if you think you have TB?
If you think you might have TB disease or TB infection, call
your doctor or local health department to schedule a test.
Sources: Denver Public Health, Centers for Disease Control